Signs and Symptoms:3
Based upon ASIA diagnostic exams, there are four classifications based upon myotome and dermatome (both light touch and pin prick) testing of C2 through S4/S5 bilaterally:
Physical Therapy Interventions:
1. Spinal cord injury facts and figures at a glance. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center Web site. 2012. Available at: https://www.nscisc.uab.edu/PublicDocuments/fact_figures_docs/Facts%202012%20Feb%20Final.pdf. Accessed April 29, 2014.
2. Kraus KH. The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and its clinical implications. Semin Vet Med Surg. 1996;11(4): 201-207.
3. Spinal cord injury. Johns Hopkins Medicine Web site. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/physical_medicine_and_rehabilitation/spinal_cord_injury_85,P01180/. Accessed April 29, 2014.
4. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury. American Spinal Injury Association Web site. Available at: http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org/elearning/ISNCSCI_Exam_Sheet_r4.pdf. Accessed April 29, 2014.
5. Burns AS, Marino RJ, Flanders AE, et al. Clinical diagnosis and prognosis following spinal cord injury. Handb Clin Neurol. 2012;109: 47-62.
6. Scivoletto G and Donna VD. Prediction of walking recovery after spinal cord injury. Brain Research Bulletin. 2009;78: 43-51.
7. Scivoletto G, Morganti B, Ditunno P, et al. Effects on age on spinal cord lesion patients' rehabilitaiton. Spinal Cord. 2003;41: 457-464.