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Apprehension Test

Apprehension Test


Name
Purpose1, 2
Description2
Sensitivity, Specificity
DOR
Reliability Validity
Likelihood Ratio +/-
Apprehension Test Anterior Shoulder
This test checks for a possible torn labrum or anterior instability problem
The examiner stands either behind or at the involved side, grasps the wrist with one hand and passively externally rotates the humerus to end range with the shoulder in 90 degrees of abduction. Forward pressure is then applied to the posterior aspect of the humeral head by the examiner or the table (if the patient is in supine). A positive test for anterior instability is if apprehension is presented by the patient or if the patient reports pain.
Sensitivity= 303-534
Specificity=
633-994
 
DOR=
.733 - 112.774
ICC=0.475
 
LR+ =
.813-534
LR- =
.474-1.113

1.       Magee DJ.  Orthopedic Physical Assessment. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.
2.       Cook CE, Hegedus EJ. Orthpoedic Physical Examination Tests: An Evidence-Based Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hal; 2008.
3.       Guanche CA, Jones DC. Clinical testing for tears of the glenoid labrum. Arthroscopy. 2003; 19:517-523.
4.       Lo Ik, Nonweiler B, Woolfrey M, Litchfield R, Kirkley A. An evaluation of the apprehension, relocation and surprise tests for anterior shoulder instability. Am J Sports Med. 2004; 32:301-307.
5.       Tzannes A, Paxinos A, Callanan M, Murrell GAC. An assessment of the interexaminer reliability of tests for anterior instability. J Shoulder Elb Surg .2004; 13(1):24-29.