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Lachman Test (Two Versions)

Lachman,post/ant drawer,sag test,

Lachman Test (modified)

Sensitivity, Specificity
Validity, Reliability
Likelihood Ratio +/-
Lachman’s Test
The Lachman test is the best indicator of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament, especially the posterolateral band.[1][2][3][4][5][6]
The therapist holds the patients knee between full extension and 30 degrees of flexion.
The patient’s femur is stabilized with one of the examiner’s hands (the “outside hand) while the proximal aspect of the tibia is moved forward with the other (“inside”) hand.[7]
+ 11.3[9]

[1] Jonsson T, Althoff B, Peterson L et al: Clinical diagnosis of ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament: a comparative study of the Lachman test and the anterior drawer sign, Am J Sports Med 10:100-102, 1982.
[2] Paessler HH, Michel D: How new is the Lachman test? Am J Sports Med 20:95-98, 1992.
[3] Torg JS, Conrad W, Allen V: Clinical diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament instability in the athlete, Am J Sports Med 4:84-93, 1976.
[4] Jackson R.: The torn ACL: natural history of untreated lesions and rationale for selective treatment. In Feagin JA, editor: The crucial ligaments, Edinburgh, 1988, Churchill Livingstone.
[5] Rosenberg TD, Rasmussen GL: The function of the anterior cruciate ligament during anterior drawer and Lachman’s testing, Am J Sports Med 12:318-322, 1984.
[6] Logan MC, Williams A, Lavelle J et al: What really happens during the Lachman test—a dynamic MRI analysis of tibiofemoral motion, Am J Sports Med 32:369-375, 2004.
[7] Magee DJ. Orthopedic Physical Assessment: 5th Edition. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier;2008.
[8] Cooperman JM, et al. Reliability and validity of judgements of the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee using Lachmans Test. Phys Ther. 1990; 70: 225-233.
[9] Learmonth DJ. Incidence and diagnosis of anterior cruciate injuries in the accident and emergency department. Injury. 1991;22:287-290.